Europe In The Twentieth Century Paxton Pdf Free

Contents. Geography In 1914, the territory of France was different from today's France in two important ways: most of and the northeastern part of had been annexed by Germany in 1870 (following the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871), and the North-African country of had been established as an integral part of France in 1848. Would be restored at the end of World War I (only to be lost again, temporarily, to the Germans a second time during World War II). Demographics.

A French bayonet charge in World War I Many French intellectuals welcomed the war to avenge the humiliation of defeat and loss of territory to Germany following the of 1871. After Socialist leader. A pacifist, was assassinated at the start of the war, the French socialist movement abandoned its antimilitarist positions and joined the national war effort.

Prime Minister called for unity—for a ' ('Sacred Union')-Which was a wartime truce between the right and left factions that had been fighting bitterly. France had few dissenters. However, was a major factor by 1917, even reaching the army. The soldiers were reluctant to attack; Mutiny was a factor as soldiers said it was best to wait for the arrival of millions of Americans. The soldiers were protesting not just the futility of frontal assaults in the face of German machine guns but also degraded conditions at the front lines and at home, especially infrequent leaves, poor food, the use of African and Asian colonials on the home front, and concerns about the welfare of their wives and children. The economy was hurt by the German invasion of major industrial areas in the northeast.

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While the occupied area in 1913 contained only 14% of France's industrial workers, it produced 58% of the steel, and 40% of the coal. Considerable relief came with the influx of American food, money and raw materials in 1917. Became prime minister in November 1917, a time of defeatism and acrimony. Italy was on the defensive, and Russia had surrendered. Civilians were angry as rations fell short and the threat of German air raids grew. Clemenceau realized his first priority was to restore civilian morale. He arrested, a former French prime minister, for openly advocating peace negotiations.


He won all-party support to fight to victory calling for 'la guerre jusqu'au bout' (war until the end). The war brought great losses of manpower and resources. Fought in large part on French soil, it led to approximately 1.4 million French dead including civilians (see ), and four times as many wounded. France borrowed billions of dollars from the U.S.

Karate kid full movie online free. That it had to repay. The stipulations of the (1919) were favourable: Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France; Germany was required to take full responsibility for the war and to pay to France that covered its entire war costs, including veterans' benefits.

One German industrial area, a coal and steel region, was temporarily occupied by France. Between the wars (1919-1939). Main article: The crisis affected France a bit later than other countries; it hit in 1931.

While the 1920s grew at the very strong rate of 4.43% per year, the 1930s rate fell to only 0.63%. Despite the enormous disruption to the economy caused by the Great War, by 1924 industrial and agricultural production had been restored to prewar levels.

There was rapid widespread growth 1924 to 1931. France tried vigorously without much success to obtain the Germany had been forced to promise at the. This led France. Finally all the major nations agreed to accept the American proposals, known as the of 1924 and the of 1929, to stabilize reparation payments. Germany was virtually bankrupt by 1931, and all payments were suspended. After 1931 rising unemployment and political unrest led to the.

The left banded together and formed the, led by, which won the elections in 1936. Ultra-nationalist groups also saw increased popularity, although democracy prevailed until 1940.

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Economic conditions did not significantly improve, even as the Popular Front reduce the workweek to 30 hours. Fearful of a Civil War inside France, such as was happening inside Spain, France led the major nations to call an arms blockade designed to prevent arms shipments to either side during the Spanish Civil War.

This effort nonetheless failed to stop arms shipments from Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union. World War II (1939-1945). Main articles:, and In September, 1939 Hitler invaded Poland, and France and Great Britain declared war. Both armies were mobilized to the Western Front, but for the next 8 months neither side made a move: this would be called the '. The German Blitzkrieg began its attack in May 1940, and in six weeks of savage fighting the French lost 130,000 men.

The Allied armies crumbled, but the British managed to rescue their own soldiers and about 100,000 French soldiers in the. France was defeated and had to sign an armistice with on June 22, 1940. French soldiers became prisoners of war in Germany, where they were assigned to munitions factories and served as hostages. Nazi Germany occupied three fifths of France's territory (the Atlantic seaboard and most of France north of the ), leaving the rest to the new government established on July 10, 1940 under.

Its senior leaders acquiesced in the plunder of French resources, as well as the sending of French forced labor to Nazi Germany; in doing so, they claimed they hoped to preserve at least some small amount of French sovereignty. After an initial period of double-dealing and passive collaboration with the Nazis, the Vichy regime passed to active participation (largely the work of prime minister ).

The Nazi German occupation proved costly as Nazi Germany appropriated a full one-half of France's public sector revenue. From 1942 to 1944 many French citizens were deported to and in Germany and Poland. On the other hand, those who refused defeat and collaboration with, such as, organized the in the UK and coordinated in occupied and Vichy France. By August 1944, 260,000 French regulars and 300,000 FFI were fighting in France. After four years of occupation and strife, Allied forces, including, liberated France in 1944.

Paris was liberated on August 25, 1944. On September 10, 1944 installed his provisional government in Paris. This time he remained in Paris until the end of the war, refusing to abandon even when Paris was temporarily threatened by German troops during the in December 1944.

But France could now again participate as a nation in the war. In 1945, French army numbered 1,300,000 men, 412,000 of whom were fighting in Germany and 40,000 in Italy. Post-war period (1945-1999).

President Chirac and United States President talk over issues during the, July 21, 2001. The French have stood among the strongest supporters of and EU policy in the Balkans. In evaluating his presidency in 2015, the British magazine The Economist stated: In his term, unemployment averaged 10 percent, debt mounted, the French said no to Europe, and the suburban banlieues Muslim suburbs rioted.It was on his watch that France's competitive position sharply declined. His popularity sank to 16 percent.But today Jacques Chirac has emerged as an improbable icon of retro taste and a figure of public affection.

Colonies. Population trends. Main article: The population held steady from 40.7 million in 1911, to 41.5 million in 1936. The sense that the population was too small, especially in regard to the rapid growth of more powerful Germany, was a common theme in the early twentieth century. Natalist policies were proposed in the 1930s, and implemented in the 1940s. France experienced a after 1945; it reversed a long-term record of low birth rates. In addition, there was a steady immigration, especially from former French colonies in North Africa.

The population grew from 41 million in 1946, to 50 million in 1966, and 60 million by 1990. The farm population decline sharply, from 35% of the workforce in 1945 to under 5% by 2000. By 2004, France had the second highest birthrate in Europe, behind only Ireland. Main article: Following on the radical developments of and at the end of the nineteenth century, the first half of the twentieth century in France saw the even more revolutionary experiments of, and, artistic movements that would have a major impact on western, and eventually world, art. After World War II, while French artists explored such tendencies as, and, France's preeminence in the visual arts was eclipsed by developments elsewhere (the United States in particular). See also. Notes.